Infectious diseases are important issues in terms of public health and can be successfully treated with appropriate antimicrobial agents. In addition, both in community and in hospitals infections sometimes cannot be treated due to irrational antimicrobial therapy. Even sometimes patient may die. That’s why appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a very important factor which affects mortality, complications, prevention of chronic stage, severity and duration of illness.

Analysis of physicians prescribing behavior with  “Prescription Information System (RBS)” revealed that at 2011 in primary care prescriptions;  a total of 439,539,673 box prescribed which 55,878,010 (12.71%) of them was antibiotics. The cost analysis showed that antibiotics  constitute 14.14% of the overall prescription cost. This stiuation shows the importance of rational use of antibiotics which has a important place in our drug consumption.

For ideal use of antibiotics; after the correct diagnosis, right  antibiotics should be prescribed with the most suitable route of administration, in effective dose, with the optimal dose interval and duration of treatment. For the proper use of antibiotics, the presence of a bacterial infection should be microbiologically proven. Selecting the new and expensive antibiotics instead of an old and effective  antibiotic activity, inessential use of multiple antibiotics simultaneously, improper use of antibiotics according to culture results are  examples of inappropriate use of antibiotics.

It has shown that most of the antibiotics in primary helath care are prescribed for respiratory tract infections. There is enough evidence on that host immune system is sufficient to fight against most of the respiratory tract infections and  antibiotics are not indicated. Antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections; misuse widely observed in infections like common cold or flu  which are caused by viruses and antibiotic use in these infections does not cure or  prevent the spread of the virus to other people. In case of infections which antibiotics are not indicated,  infection control measures are adequate to prevent the spread of infection from patients to other people.

Improper use of antibiotics can cause bacteria to develop resistance to subsequent treatments. Antimicrobial resistance cause failure or reduction in effectiveness of antimicrobial agent for treatment of infections. Antibiotic resistance for bacteria is that bacteria can reproduce or cause infections despite the presence of an antibiotic. In consequence, the antibiotics becomes useless when needed. This stiuation is not dangerous only to people using antibiotics improperly, it constitutes a danger to anyone who is at risk for infections with resistant bacteria.

Antibiotic resistance has become a major health problem worldwide. Infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria causes an increased mortality rates and prolonged time spent in hospital and also causes an increase in the cost of treatment. Antibiotic use, change the normal bacterial flora in humans that often can lead to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the occurrence of side effects such as diarrhea.

Do not forget that antibiotics; does not reduce the fever, does not relieve the pain, can not treat viral infections. Rapidly developing resistance due to widespread and incorrect use of antibiotics results in failure in the treatment of  bacterial infections. Antibiotics should not be used unless prescribed by  physician. Patients should know that, the antibiotics used in an earlier illness should not be used without counselling to a doctor even if he/she experience similar symptoms like previous disease again. Do not forget that antibiotics are not indicated in viral respiratory tract infections such as common cold or flu. Antibiotics taken by prescription should be used at the right dose, with the right route  and  in accordance with prescribed time intervals to reduce the risk of developing resistance. Patients  should not quit  treatment before the end of the period mentioned in prescription, even he/she feels better. Do not use antibiotics without prescription.

To prevent development of resistance to our most important weapons against bacterial infections we need to increase our awareness on antibiotic use.

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